Virtually Islamic Blog

Professor Gary R. Bunt

Online Manipulation

Clint Watts, FPRI, Five Generations of Online Manipulation: The Evolution of Advanced Persistent Manipulators

"Advanced Persistent Manipulators (APM), those with resources, talent, and technology for advancing their influence over an enduring period, will continue to grow in number and sophistication following a similar progression witnessed in the world of hacking – individual hackers to criminals to extremists to nation states.  An examination of where online manipulation emerged and the actors advancing each innovation in tradecraft and technology suggests the dominant manipulators of the future will seek to take open systems and make them closed." This is a long read, well-worth looking at, with the bonus of a useful infographic.

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